Lieke Schrijvers | Demonstrating Dutch: Nationalism and Cultural Racism in the 2013 Anti-Putin and Pro-Black Pete Protests in the Netherlands

27.2 Racism in the Netherlands

Abstract

This article examines two separate events of 2013: the pro-Black Pete demonstration in the Hague and the anti-Putin demonstration in Amsterdam. By analyzing the contexts and bodies of these debates, this paper looks at several ways in which a Dutch national subject is imagined within these events. I argue that these are local and global sites that are both creating, and created by, structural forces of in- and exclusion within and beyond a notion of “Dutch national identity.” In this paper, I use a transnational feminist framework and queer of color critique to analyze the multiple linkages within, between, and among both spaces to ask how Dutchness is demonstrated.

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September 19th, 2015

David Herbert | Racism in the Netherlands: A Social Scientific Analysis of the Dynamics of the Dutch Multicultural Backlash

27.2 Racism in the Netherlands

Abstract

Why did the Netherlands reject multicultural policies in the mid-2000s? This article identifies a two-stage process: First, a discursive shift preceding policy change, enabled by a synergy between developments in media culture and “celebrity politicians,” who championed an anti-Islam rhetoric which resonated with significant Dutch audiences because it rejected the “immigrant other” on more socially acceptable cultural rather than racial grounds, and appealed to popular discourses on gender and sexuality rights. Second, open political opportunity structures and the absence of a developed public discourse on multiple racisms enabled translation of this discursive shift into policy. Finally, modes and cases of resistance to cultural racism in Dutch society are discussed.

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September 19th, 2015

Guno Jones | Unequal Citizenship in the Netherlands: The Caribbean Dutch as Liminal Citizens

27.2 Racism in the Netherlands

Abstract

This article discusses attempts to turn “Carribean Dutch” citizens into aliens by analyzing (the debates on) a bill initiated by Member of Parliament André Bosman in 2012. The bill in effect proposes the introduction of a distinction between first- and second-class citizens based on descent. If enacted, it would amount to formal inequality with regard to the right of settlement, social rights, and street inspections. Furthermore, a class of deportable “Antillean Dutch” citizens would be created. In the debates on the bill, different readings regarding the meaning of the Dutch Kingdom, Dutch citizenship and its entitlements, emancipation, and the Dutch nation can be inferred. Regardless of whether the bill becomes enacted or not, it conveys the message to all “othered” citizens that they are at risk of becoming a class of liminal citizens in Dutch society.

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September 19th, 2015

Zihni Özdil | “Racism is an American Problem”: Dutch Exceptionalism and the Politics of Denial

27.2 Racism in the Netherlands

Abstract

Through various topical examples, this article expounds on how the cultural legacy of the Dutch Transatlantic Slave Trade is institutionalized and permeates through Dutch society, while it is simultaneously being negated through the politics of Dutch exceptionalism and the ubiquitous myth of the Netherlands being a “color blind” country. The lack of awareness of the role of the Netherlands during the Transatlantic Slave Trade and the anti-black cultural reproduction that accompanied it stems from a complex merger of political, economic and cultural interests that prohibit the prospering of a critical understanding of Dutch racism and its history. Moreover, this political economy of Dutch exceptionalism has both discursively and institutionally served to exclude black and non-black Dutch people of color from the public debate, thus marginalizing their voice and delegitimizing them as cultural stakeholders.

In the course of this piece I will propose that a thorough educational reform as well as a radical democratization of the Dutch system of cultural decision-making is necessary in order to facilitate a societal awareness process that will help dismantle Dutch institutional racism.

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September 19th, 2015

Katrine Smiet | “Transatlantic Cross-Pollination”: 30 Years of Dutch Feminist Theorizing on Race and Racism

27.2 Racism in the Netherlands // Uncategorized

Abstract

The article provides an overview of theorizing on race and racism within Dutch feminist scholarship since the 1980s. In analyzing the scholarship, close attention is paid to the role scholarship from the United States has played in the development of intersectional theorizing in the Netherlands. In line with professor Gloria Wekker’s characterization, I show how the transatlantic exchange of ideas in women’s and gender studies has been a fertile “cross-pollination.” Dutch scholars have been inspired by the work of US scholars of color, but have also adapted and translated those concepts to address the specificities of Dutch racism.

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September 19th, 2015

Aja Y. Martinez | Critical Race Theory: Its Origins, History, and Importance to the Discourses and Rhetorics of Race

27.2 Racism in the Netherlands

Abstract

Critical Race Theory (CRT) originated in US law schools, bringing together issues of power, race, and racism to address the liberal notion of color blindness, and argues that ignoring racial differences maintains and perpetuates the status quo with its deeply institutionalized injustices to racial minorities. This essay introduces CRT as a theoretical frame by which to better understand discourses of race and racism in contemporary color blind and supposed post-racial societies. This work is situated within rhetorical studies so as to trace connections between CRT scholarship and literatures in anti-racist rhetoric that seek to understand, challenge, and dismantle systems of racism.

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September 19th, 2015